Central obesity and the accumulation of visceral fat are risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Omentin is a protein expressed and secreted from visceral but not subcutaneous adipose tissue that increases insulin sensitivity in human adipocytes. To determine the impact of obesity-dependent insulin resistance on the regulation of two omentin isoforms, gene expression and plasma levels were measured in lean, overweight, and obese subjects. Omentin 1 was shown to be the major circulating isoform in human plasma. Lean subjects had significantly higher plasma omentin 1 levels than obese and overweight subjects. In addition, higher plasma omentin 1 levels were detected in women compared with men. Plasma omentin 1 levels were inversely correlated with BMI, waist circumference, leptin levels, and insulin resistance as measured by homeostasis model assessment and positively correlated with adiponectin and HDL levels. Both omentin 1 and omentin 2 gene expression were decreased with obesity and were highly correlated with each other in visceral adipose tissue. In summary, decreased omentin levels are associated with increasing obesity and insulin resistance. Therefore, omentin levels may be predictive of the metabolic consequences or co-morbidities associated with obesity.