Sixty patients were studied for carotid artery disease and were further evaluated with hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) both at baseline (with the patient resting) and after administration of acetazolamide (ACZ). Of these 60 patients, 58 (97%) had symptoms and 49 (82%) had stenoses greater than 70% in at least one internal carotid vessel. Nine patients (15%) had symmetric findings on baseline examinations and at SPECT with ACZ. Thirty-two patients (53%) had asymmetric findings on baseline, but in 24 of these patients (75%) additional lesions were observed after ACZ administration. Nineteen patients (32%) had asymmetric findings only after ACZ was administered. HMPAO SPECT with ACZ allows detection of diminished cerebral perfusion reserve that is not found when HMPAO SPECT is performed with the patient at rest. This procedure helps provide an objective evaluation of the hemodynamic effects of carotid stenosis.