Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Am J Public Health. 2007 Apr;97(4):667-75. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.083782. Epub 2007 Feb 28.


In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and nutrition and health outcomes. We found clear associations of soft drink intake with increased energy intake and body weight. Soft drink intake also was associated with lower intakes of milk, calcium, and other nutrients and with an increased risk of several medical problems (e.g., diabetes). Study design significantly influenced results: larger effect sizes were observed in studies with stronger methods (longitudinal and experimental vs cross-sectional studies). Several other factors also moderated effect sizes (e.g., gender, age, beverage type). Finally, studies funded by the food industry reported significantly smaller effects than did non-industry-funded studies. Recommendations to reduce population soft drink consumption are strongly supported by the available science.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Body Weight*
  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Carbonated Beverages*
  • Chronic Disease / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Drinking Behavior
  • Energy Intake
  • Humans
  • Industry
  • Milk
  • Nutritional Status*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sample Size


  • Calcium, Dietary