PTPA, which possesses a peptidyl prolyl isomerase activity, was initially isolated as a protein that stimulates the weak phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity of the Ser/Thr phosphatase PP2A. Here we show that transient overexpression of PTPA leads to cell death in a time-dependent manner in mammalian cells. PTPA-overproducing cells manifest hallmarks of apoptosis including chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing, positive staining with annexin V, dephosphorylation of Bad, and caspase-3 cleavage. Incubation of cells with the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid does not prevent either dephosphorylation of Bad or PTPA-induced apoptosis, indicating that PTPA is unlikely to mediate its proapoptotic effect via PP2A. Moreover, we find no evidence for the involvement of either p53 or MAP kinases. Our data reveal a potential novel role for PTPA in the apoptotic process.