Benign extramedullary myeloid proliferations

Mod Pathol. 2007 Apr;20(4):405-15. doi: 10.1038/modpathol.3800768. Epub 2007 Mar 2.


Extramedullary proliferations of bone marrow elements are infrequently encountered in routine pathology practice. On occasion, they can present diagnostic difficulties when seen in unusual or unanticipated sites. This review serves to cover aspects of underlying embryogenesis of myeloid elements, as well as sites and circumstance of benign proliferations of myeloid elements along with their occasional confusion with neoplastic myeloid proliferations. Benign proliferations associated with hematologic disorders and hematopoietic growth factors are discussed. Immunohistochemical evaluation of myeloid proliferations is considered as well.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Bone Marrow / embryology
  • Bone Marrow / metabolism
  • Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism
  • Bone Marrow Cells / pathology*
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary*
  • Humans
  • Liver / pathology
  • Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • Myelolipoma / pathology
  • Sarcoma, Myeloid / pathology
  • Spleen / pathology


  • Biomarkers