The prevalence of neuropsychological and respiratory symptoms, lung ventilatory parameters, neurofunctional performances (visual reaction time, eye-hand coordination, hand steadiness, audioverbal short term memory), and several biological parameters (calcium, iron, luteinising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and prolactin concentrations in serum, blood counts, manganese (Mn) concentration in blood and in urine) were examined in a group of workers (n = 92) exposed to MnO2 dust in a dry alkaline battery factory and a matched control group (n = 101). In the battery plant, the current exposure of the workers to airborne Mn was measured with personal samplers and amounted on average (geometric mean) to 215 and 948 micrograms Mn/m3 for respirable and total dust respectively. For each worker, the lifetime integrated exposure to respirable and total airborne Mn dust was also assessed. The geometric means of the Mn concentrations in blood (MnB) and in urine (MnU) were significantly higher in the Mn exposed group than in the control group (MnB 0.81 v 0.68 microgram/100 ml; MnU 0.84 v 0.09 microgram/g creatinine). On an individual basis, MnU and MnB were not related to various external exposure parameters (duration of exposure, current exposure, or lifetime integrated exposure to airborne Mn). On a group basis, a statistically significant association was found between MnU and current Mn concentrations in air. No appreciable difference between the exposed and the control workers was found with regard to the other biological measurements (calcium, LH, FSH, and prolactin in serum). Although the erythropoietic parameters and serum iron concentration were in the normal range for both groups, there was a statistically significant trend towards lower values in the Mn exposed workers. The prevalences of reported neuropsychological and respiratory symptoms, the lung function parameters, and the audioverbal short term memory scores did not differ between the control and exposed groups. The Mn workers, however, performed the other neurofunctional tests (visual reaction time, eye-hand coordination, hand steadiness) less satisfactorily than the control workers. For these tests, the prevalences of abnormal results were related to the lifetime integrated exposure to total and respirable Mn dust. On the basis of logistic regression analysis it may be inferred that an increased risk of peripheral tremor exists when the lifetime integrated exposure to Mn dust exceeds 3575 or 730 micrograms Mn/m3 x year for total and respirable dust respectively. The results clearly support a previous proposal by the authors to decrease the current time weighted average exposure to Mn dust.