Bone augmentation techniques

J Periodontol. 2007 Mar;78(3):377-96. doi: 10.1902/jop.2007.060048.


Background: The advent of osseointegration and advances in biomaterials and techniques have contributed to increased application of dental implants in the restoration of partial and completely edentulous patients. Often, in these patients, soft and hard tissue defects result from a variety of causes, such as infection, trauma, and tooth loss. These create an anatomically less favorable foundation for ideal implant placement. For prosthetic-driven dental implant therapy, reconstruction of the alveolar bone through a variety of regenerative surgical procedures has become predictable; it may be necessary prior to implant placement or simultaneously at the time of implant surgery to provide a restoration with a good long-term prognosis. Regenerative procedures are used for socket preservation, sinus augmentation, and horizontal and vertical ridge augmentation.

Methods: A broad overview of the published findings in the English literature related to various bone augmentation techniques is outlined. A comprehensive computer-based search was performed using various databases that include Medline and PubMed. A total of 267 papers were considered, with non-peer-reviewed articles eliminated as much as possible.

Results: The techniques for reconstruction of bony defects that are reviewed in this paper include the use of particulate bone grafts and bone graft substitutes, barrier membranes for guided bone regeneration, autogenous and allogenic block grafts, and the application of distraction osteogenesis.

Conclusions: Many different techniques exist for effective bone augmentation. The approach is largely dependent on the extent of the defect and specific procedures to be performed for the implant reconstruction. It is most appropriate to use an evidenced-based approach when a treatment plan is being developed for bone augmentation cases.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alveolar Ridge Augmentation / methods*
  • Animals
  • Bone Transplantation / methods
  • Dental Implantation, Endosseous
  • Dental Implants
  • Guided Tissue Regeneration, Periodontal
  • Humans
  • Maxillary Sinus / surgery
  • Osteogenesis, Distraction
  • Tooth Socket / surgery


  • Dental Implants