Our understanding of the regulation of the expression of the sodium hydrogen exchangers (NHE) and their regulatory factors (NHERF), which play important roles in fetal-placental homeostasis, is incomplete. We previously showed that the expression and localisation of NHE3 and NHERF2 in the juxtanuclear compartment of the placental syncytiotrophoblast were markedly decreased between mid and late baboon pregnancy. In the current study, immunocytochemical fluorescence localisation and level of NHE3/NHE1 and NHERF1/NHERF2 proteins were determined in late gestation in baboons untreated or treated throughout the second half of gestation with an aromatase inhibitor CGS 20267 alone (reduced oestrogen levels by >95%) or with oestradiol to determine whether oestrogen regulated antiporter developmental expression. The immunocytochemical expression of NHE3 and NHERF2 in the juxtanuclear compartment was minimal in baboons untreated or treated with CGS 20267 plus oestradiol (i.e. oestrogen-replete) but extensive in oestrogen-suppressed animals. Moreover, the abundant expression of NHERF2 in fetal vascular endothelium of oestrogen-replete baboons was decreased in oestrogen-suppressed animals. In contrast, expression and localisation of NHE1 and NHERF1 in the placental syncytiotrophoblast were not altered by oestrogen deprivation in baboons. Based on our current and previous findings, we propose that oestrogen plays an important role in regulating localisation and expression of components of the NHE system within and consequently development and function of the primate placental syncytiotrophoblast.