Objective: This study represents the experience of a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia on non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.
Methods: A retrospective review of all patients with confirmed Non-Cystic Fibrosis (Non-CF) bronchiectasis by chest X-ray and or CT chest in a pulmonary clinic for the period 1993-2005 at a tertiary care center in Riyadh.
Results: A0 total of 151 cases were diagnosed as Non-CF bronchiectasis. Siventy-five (49.7%) were males, 76(50.3%) were females. One hundred forty-eight (98%) are alive and 3(2%) died. The southwestern regions constituted 72(50%) of the cases. There is a period (5+/- 3.2) years between the start of symptoms and the diagnosis of bronchiectasis. More than 2/3 of the patients had cough, tachypnea, wheezing, sputum production and failure to thrive. Ninety one (60%) had associated disease: Pulmonary diseases in 48(32%), immunodefficiency in 27(18%), CNS in 18(12%), cardiac in 12(8%) and asthma in 103(68%) of the patients. Left lower lobes were commonly involved in 114(76%) cases. Sixty-eight (67%) were found to have sinusitis. Forty-nine (32%) developed gastroesophgeal reflux (GER). Hemophilus influenza was cultured in 56(37%), Strept pneumoniae in 25(17%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 24(16%) of the patients. 80% of the patients who had pulmonary function test had abnormal changes. Disease progression was related to development of symptoms before 5 years of age, persistent atelectasis and right lower lobe involvement (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Non-CF bronchiectasis is a common problem in Saudi Arabia. Early recognition and institution of treatment with proper vaccination of available anti-bacterial and anti-viral vaccines are encouraged to prevent progression of the disease.