Oral verruciform xanthoma: a clinicopathologic study of 15 cases

J Formos Med Assoc. 2007 Feb;106(2):141-7. doi: 10.1016/S0929-6646(09)60230-8.


Background/purpose: Oral verruciform xanthoma (VX) is an uncommon oral mucosal lesion. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical and histopathologic features of 15 oral VXs occurring in Taiwanese patients.

Methods: Fifteen consecutive cases of oral VX were collected from January 1988 to December 2005. Clinical data and microscopic features of these cases were reviewed and analyzed.

Results: The mean age of patients was 45 years (range, 18-79 years). There were eight male and seven female patients. Seven (46.6%) cases occurred on the gingiva, four (26.7%) on the tongue, and four (26.7%) on the buccal or vestibular mucosa. The greatest mean dimension of the lesions was 0.8 cm (range, 0.3-2.0 cm). Three patients had concomitant other oral mucosal lesions such as oral submucous fibrosis, squamous cell carcinoma, and erosive oral lichen planus. Microscopically, all specimens showed varying degrees of surface parakeratosis and the accumulation of numerous foam cells in the connective tissue papillae among uniformly elongated epithelial ridges. Individuals or aggregates of foam cells were also found underneath the epithelial ridges in nine (60%) cases. When the oral VX lesions were further classified into three types according to the microscopic surface architecture, seven (47%) lesions were of the verrucous type, three (20%) the papillary type, and five (33%) the flat type. All patients received surgical excision of the lesions and no recurrence was noted during follow-up of up to 18 years.

Conclusion: Oral VXs occur more frequently in the fifth decade of life. The more commonly affected site is the gingiva. The treatment of choice for oral VXs is surgical excision. The prognosis is excellent and recurrence was not seen in this study.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Gingiva / pathology
  • Gingiva / surgery
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mouth Diseases / epidemiology
  • Mouth Diseases / pathology*
  • Mouth Diseases / surgery
  • Mouth Mucosa / pathology
  • Mouth Mucosa / surgery
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Taiwan / epidemiology
  • Xanthomatosis / epidemiology
  • Xanthomatosis / pathology*
  • Xanthomatosis / surgery