In Parkinson's disease (PD), there is degeneration of the cholinergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic systems in addition to dopaminergic projections. Function of these non-dopaminergic systems can be imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and correlated with motor and nonmotor symptomatology. In addition, neuronal loss in PD is associated with microglial activation. The role of microglia in driving the disease process remains uncertain. This review presents and discusses current findings in these areas.