Peripheral regeneration

Annu Rev Neurosci. 2007;30:209-33. doi: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.30.051606.094337.


Whereas the central nervous system (CNS) usually cannot regenerate, peripheral nerves regenerate spontaneously after injury because of a permissive environment and activation of the intrinsic growth capacity of neurons. Functional regeneration requires axon regrowth and remyelination of the regenerated axons by Schwann cells. Multiple factors including neurotrophic factors, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and hormones participate in Schwann cell dedifferentiation, proliferation, and remyelination. We describe the current understanding of peripheral axon regeneration and focus on the molecules and potential mechanisms involved in remyelination.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Axons / metabolism*
  • Axons / ultrastructure
  • Gene Expression Regulation / physiology
  • Growth Cones / metabolism
  • Growth Cones / ultrastructure
  • Hormones / genetics
  • Hormones / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Myelin Sheath / metabolism*
  • Myelin Sheath / ultrastructure
  • Nerve Growth Factors / genetics
  • Nerve Growth Factors / metabolism*
  • Nerve Regeneration / physiology*
  • Peripheral Nerves / cytology
  • Peripheral Nerves / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction / physiology


  • Hormones
  • Nerve Growth Factors