The prevalence of prostatitis is extremely high, with up to 16% of men diagnosed with prostatitis at some point throughout their lifetime. However, the etiology appears to be multifactorial and standard treatment regimens have been altered significantly in recent years. The purpose of this review is to examine the changing scientific views on the causes and treatment of prostatitis, chronic prostaitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome. We review the infectious and noninfectious etiology of the disease, examining the role of antimicrobial treatment in eradicating infection as well as ameliorating symptoms. Current NIH classifications, which stratify prostatitis into four categories, are discussed, as is the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index, the primary tool used to assess symptomatology. Diagnostic examinations are studying the need for the four-glass test and its practical replacement by the two-glass test. Multimodal treatment therapy is then discussed, including recent data on biofeedback and evaluation of the role of pelvic floor dysfunction in prostatitis.