Metabolic alterations are a key player involved in the onset of Alzheimer disease pathophysiology and, in this review, we focus on diet, metabolic rate, and neuronal size differences that have all been shown to play etiological and pathological roles in Alzheimer disease. Specifically, one of the earliest manifestations of brain metabolic depression in these patients is a sustained high caloric intake meaning that general diet is an important factor to take in account. Moreover, atrophy in the vasculature and a reduced glucose transporter activity for the vessels is also a common feature in Alzheimer disease. Finally, the overall size of neurons is larger in cases of Alzheimer disease than that of age-matched controls and, in individuals with Alzheimer disease, neuronal size inversely correlates with disease duration and positively associates with oxidative stress. Overall, clarifying cellular and molecular manifestations involved in metabolic alterations may contribute to a better understanding of early Alzheimer disease pathophysiology.