This paper reports results of a project designed to examine factors related to compliance with referral for follow-up and treatment of cervical dysplasia. Women studied had cervical dysplasia diagnosed by Pap smear between May 1989 and April 1990. These women had regular follow-up at the gynecology clinic of the Reynolds Health Center in Winston-Salem or at one of 14 county health departments in northwestern North Carolina. Data were collected by chart review, and included age, race, place of residence, marital status, parity/gravidity, education, previous papillomavirus infections, method of payment, and previous Pap smear results. Patients were traced through the treatment protocol, and compliance was assessed at each appointment. In these women of low socioeconomic status, approximately one third of those referred for treatment of dysplasia were noncompliant with referral.