A project to prevent renal diseases in the general population

J Nephrol. Jan-Feb 2007;20(1):36-42.


Background: Early identification of subjects unaware of hypertension, diabetes and urinary abnormalities may prevent and/or reduce the onset and progression of kidney disease and ameliorate outcomes. In this study, the presence of hypertension, diabetes and urinary abnormalities was checked in subjects walking in a large square of Naples.

Methods: Data on age, habits and history of hypertension and/or diabetes were collected. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded. Protein, glucose, leukocytes and red blood cells were measured in urine.

Results: Participants numbered 698. Smoking (past or current smoking) was reported by 77%. Many of the participants with hypertension (35%) showed uncontrolled hypertension despite antihypertensive therapy. Hypertension was found for the first time in 154 subjects, and was confirmed in 28% of them afterwards; 23 participants (15% of hypertensive subjects) did not recheck blood pressure (BP) despite our summons. Proteinuria was found in 18% of new hypertensive participants. In 14 out of 17 diabetic participants without history of hypertension, hypertension was found for the first time and confirmed thereafter. Urinary abnormalities were present in more than one half of the participants, and were more prevalent in women and diabetics. Diabetics numbered 55 out of 698 subjects. In spite of therapy, glucosuria was present in almost one third of diabetics. Glucosuria was found in 6 participants with no history of diabetes (0.9% of all subjects).

Conclusions: These data demonstrate that (a) many persons with hypertension are not aware of it; (b) control of hypertension is inadequate in most treated hypertensive patients and even worse in diabetics; (c) urinary abnormalities are frequently present in otherwise healthy subjects; (d) projects with the aim of raising awareness of hypertension, urinary abnormalities and diabetes in out-clinic subjects should be supported; (e) the use of a transportable clinic parked in residential areas of cities appears a suitable way for promoting evaluation of BP and urine test in subjects unaware of disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / therapy
  • Female
  • Hematuria / diagnosis
  • Hematuria / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications
  • Hypertension / diagnosis
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Hypertension / therapy
  • Italy / epidemiology
  • Kidney Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Kidney Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Kidney Diseases / urine
  • Male
  • Mass Screening*
  • Middle Aged
  • Mobile Health Units
  • Proteinuria / diagnosis
  • Proteinuria / urine