To understand which growth factors/cytokines can affect migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to injured tissues, we compared the effects of many (26) growth factors/cytokines on the migration activity of rabbit and human MSCs using a microchemotaxis chamber. Among them, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, PDGF-AB, epidermal growth factor (EGF), HB-EGF, transforming growth factor (TGF-alpha), insulin growth factor (IGF-I), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), and thrombin consistently enhanced the migration of rabbit and human MSCs at appropriate concentrations. PDGF-BB showed the greatest effect on migration. Various combinations of these factors further enhanced the migration of MSCs, whereas combinations of factors that shared common cell-surface receptors did not induce the additive stimulation. On the other hand, some combinations, including that of FGF-2 or thrombin with PDGF-BB, suppressed the migration activity of MSCs. These findings suggest that combinations of growth factors are important to eliciting the maximal chemotactic effect. The factors that induced the migration of MSCs also enhanced their proliferation, suggesting that migration and proliferation can take place simultaneously. The above factors were also effective in stimulating the migration of fibroblasts, but thrombin alone selectively enhanced the migration of MSCs, suggesting that thrombin is useful to stimulate migration of MSCs without migration of fibroblasts.