Purpose: The effects of nonselective and selective cyclooxygenase-2 specific (COX-2) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use on the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is uncertain. Due to the high prevalence of both CKD and NSAID use in older adults, we sought to determine the association between NSAID use and the progression of CKD in an elderly community-based cohort.
Methods: All subjects > or =66 years of age who had at least one serum creatinine measurement in 2 time periods (July-December, 2001 and July-December, 2003) were included. Multiple logistic regression analyses, including covariates for age, sex, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), diabetes, and comorbidity were used to explore the associations of NSAID use on the primary (decrease in eGFR of > or =15 mL/min/1.73) and secondary (mean change in eGFR) outcomes.
Results: A total of 10,184 subjects (mean age 76 years; 57% female) were followed for a median of 2.75 years. High-dose NSAID users (upper decile of cumulative NSAID exposure) experienced a 26% increased risk for the primary outcome (odds ratio [OR] 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.53). A linear association between cumulative NSAID dose and change in mean GFR also was seen. No risk differential was identified between selective and nonselective NSAID users.
Conclusions: High cumulative NSAID exposure is associated with an increased risk for rapid CKD progression in the setting of a community-based elderly population. For older adult patients with CKD, these results suggest that nonselective NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors should be used cautiously and chronic exposure to any NSAID should be avoided.