Introduction: Since 1996, vascular anomalies are classified either as tumors or malformations. Infantile hemangioma is the most common vascular tumor. It is an endothelial cellular proliferation, stimulated after birth (10th day) which then slow involves. Congenital hemangioma is a different kind of hemangioma develops prenatally appearing fully grown at birth. Rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma (RICH) generally involutes spontaneously while non involuting congenital hemangioma (NICH) usually requires a surgical procedure. The clinical and radiological aspects of these two tumors differ significantly at birth. Most congenital hemangiomas detected at antenatal ultrasonography, due to their cephalic localization and their size (up to 10 cm) are RICH.
Material and methods: We report on five vascular tumors detected in utero during the second and third trimesters, and after birth.
Results: There were three boys and two girls. The average size of the RICH was 5 cm (1.8-10 cm). Four were cephalic and one on a lower limb. A doppler examination was available in three patients, and showed fast-flow in two. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging was available in three patients.
Discussion: The diagnosis of RICH can be suspected on the antenatal ultrasonography. Fast-flow on the doppler examination confirms the diagnosis. It is advisable to repeat the ultrasonography every two to four weeks to reevaluate the possibility of delivery and the fetal cardiac status. In the event of a prenatal vascular tumor the differential diagnosis also includes other congenital tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging would be indicated if there is any doubt about malignancy. Regular follow-up is necessary during the first months to confirm the diagnosis. RICH regress rapidly while the size of malignant tumors increases. A biopsy is necessary to obtain histopatholgical proof.