Reporter proteins for in vivo fluorescence without oxygen

Nat Biotechnol. 2007 Apr;25(4):443-5. doi: 10.1038/nbt1293. Epub 2007 Mar 11.


Fluorescent reporter proteins such as green fluorescent protein are valuable noninvasive molecular tools for in vivo real-time imaging of living specimens. However, their use is generally restricted to aerobic systems, as the formation of their chromophores strictly requires oxygen. Starting with blue-light photoreceptors from Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida that contain light-oxygen-voltage-sensing domains, we engineered flavin mononucleotide-based fluorescent proteins that can be used as fluorescent reporters in both aerobic and anaerobic biological systems.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anaerobiosis
  • Bacillus subtilis / metabolism
  • Bacterial Proteins / chemistry
  • Flavin Mononucleotide / metabolism
  • Fluorescence
  • Genes, Reporter*
  • Luminescent Proteins / metabolism*
  • Oxygen / metabolism*
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Pseudomonas putida / metabolism
  • Rhodobacter capsulatus / metabolism


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Luminescent Proteins
  • Flavin Mononucleotide
  • Oxygen