Increased neutrophils are a feature of airway inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in some patients with asthma, particularly patients with more severe disease, during exacerbations and with cigarette smoking. Because neutrophilic inflammation may be detrimental, there are several new approaches to inhibiting neutrophilic inflammation. Neutrophilic inflammation is resistant or poorly responsive to corticosteroids, so different anti-inflammatory approaches are needed. Blocking neutrophil chemotactic factors such as leukotriene B(4) and IL-8 and related cysteine-X-cysteine chemokines by blocking receptor for leukotriene B(4) 1 and receptor for cysteine-X-cysteine chemokines 2 receptors is an approach that is currently being investigated. Other approaches include blocking adhesion molecules such as E-selectin. Inhibiting phosphodiesterase-4, nuclear factor-kappaB, or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is another approach that inhibits the production of cysteine-X-cysteine chemokines. Antioxidants, long-acting beta(2)-agonists, and activators of histone deacetylase may also be effective.