Clinimetric properties of participation measures for 5- to 13-year-old children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review

Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007 Mar;49(3):232-40. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00232.x.


This study systematically reviewed the validity, reliability, sensitivity to change, and clinical utility of measurements of participation for children with cerebral palsy. Sixteen measures were identified and seven met the inclusion criteria of having 30% content measuring participation, for use with children aged 5 to 13 years with physical disability, and were condition specific. The Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) assessed participation in leisure and recreation, while the School Function Assessment (SFA) and School Outcome Measure addressed participation in the school environment. The Assessment of Life Habits for Children (LIFE-H) measured participation in home, school, and community life, and the Children Helping Out: Responsibilities and Expectations assessed children's participation in household duties. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) were individualized tools used to evaluate goal achievement. Results showed most instruments had adequate reliability and validity. The COPM and GAS were the only measures that reported adequate responsiveness to detect clinically significant change. Limited data are currently available to determine the responsiveness of the CAPE, LIFE-H, and SFA. A combination of assessments is required to capture participation of children in home, school, and community environments.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Systematic Review
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living*
  • Adolescent
  • Cerebral Palsy / physiopathology
  • Cerebral Palsy / psychology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Disability Evaluation*
  • Health Status Indicators*
  • Humans
  • Motor Skills
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Sickness Impact Profile