Prevalence, prevention, and treatment of microalbuminuria and proteinuria in children with sickle cell disease

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2007 Mar;29(3):140-4. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0b013e3180335081.


Microalbuminuria (MA) and proteinuria (P) are believed to be precursors of sickle cell nephropathy. We analyzed our longitudinal data on MA/P in children with sickle cell disease (SS) to define the age of onset, association with age, sex, and hemoglobin, and to explore the safety and efficacy of hydroxyurea and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) therapy. Data on 191 patients with SS (ages 3 to 20 y) with a mean follow up of 2.19 years+/-2.05 were available. Urine MA was measured yearly with follow-up testing if abnormal. Prevalence of MA/P was 19.4%. Increasing age and lower hemoglobin levels were related to MA/P but sex was not. Microalbumin excretion normalized in 44% of patients treated with hydroxyurea and 56% of patients treated with ACEI. Hyperkalemia developed in 4 ACEI patients resulting in discontinuation of treatment in 3 children. In summary, MA/P often develops in childhood and preventive and treatment strategies for sickle cell nephropathy should be a focus of pediatric programs. Our preliminary data suggest that although both hydroxyurea and ACEI therapy may be beneficial for MA/P, hyperkalemia may limit the utility of ACEI.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age of Onset
  • Albuminuria / drug therapy*
  • Albuminuria / epidemiology
  • Albuminuria / prevention & control*
  • Anemia, Sickle Cell / drug therapy*
  • Anemia, Sickle Cell / epidemiology
  • Anemia, Sickle Cell / pathology
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / administration & dosage*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Comorbidity
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Georgia / epidemiology
  • Homozygote
  • Humans
  • Hydroxyurea / administration & dosage*
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prevalence
  • Proteinuria / drug therapy*
  • Proteinuria / epidemiology
  • Proteinuria / prevention & control*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Hydroxyurea