The administration of noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine and ketamine has been shown to increase the extracellular concentration of glutamate and serotonin (5-HT) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In the present work, we used in vivo microdialysis to examine the effects of the more potent noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, on the efflux of glutamate and 5-HT in the mPFC, and whether the MK-801-induced changes in the cortical efflux of both transmitters could be blocked by clozapine and haloperidol given systemically or intra-mPFC. The systemic, but not the local administration of MK-801, induced an increased efflux of 5-HT and glutamate, which suggests that the NMDA receptors responsible for these effects are located outside the mPFC, possibly in GABAergic neurons that tonically inhibit glutamatergic inputs to the mPFC. The MK-801-induced increases of extracellular glutamate and 5-HT were dependent on nerve impulse and the activation of mPFC AMPA/kainate receptors as they were blocked by tetrodotoxin and NBQX, respectively. Clozapine and haloperidol blocked the MK-801-induced increase in glutamate, whereas only clozapine was able to block the increased efflux of 5-HT. The local effects of clozapine and haloperidol paralleled those observed after systemic administration, which emphasizes the relevance of the mPFC as a site of action of these antipsychotic drugs in offsetting the neurochemical effects of MK-801. The ability of clozapine to block excessive cortical 5-HT efflux elicited by MK-801 might be related to the superior efficacy of this drug in treating negative/cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia.