We performed lower extremity arterial duplex mapping from the aortic bifurcation to the ankle in 150 consecutive patients evaluated for aortic and lower extremity arterial reconstruction and compared lower extremity arterial duplex mapping in a blinded fashion to angiography. On the basis of history, physical examination, and four-cuff segmental Doppler pressures individual lower extremities were classified as normal, isolated aortoiliac disease, infrainguinal disease, and multilevel inflow and outflow disease. For vessels proximal to the tibial arteries, lower extremity arterial duplex mapping was analyzed for its ability to insonate individual arterial segments, detect a 50% or greater stenosis, and distinguish stenosis from occlusion. In the tibial arteries lower extremity arterial duplex mapping was evaluated for its ability to visualize tibial vessels and to predict interruption of tibial artery patency from origin to ankle. Lower extremity arterial duplex mapping visualized 99% of arterial segments proximal to the tibial vessels, with overall sensitivities for detecting a 50% or greater lesion ranging from 89% in the iliac vessels to 67% at the popliteal artery. Stenosis was successfully distinguished from occlusion in 98% of cases. In the tibial vessels lower extremity arterial duplex mapping was better at visualizing anterior tibial and posterior tibial artery segments (94% and 96%) than peroneal artery segments (83%), (p less than 0.001). Overall sensitivities for predicting interruption of tibial artery patency were 90% for the anterior tibial, 90% for the posterior tibial, and 82% for the peroneal. Clinical disease category did not influence in a major way the accuracy of lower extremity arterial duplex mapping in either above-knee or below-knee vessels.