Although protein receptors on the plasma membrane involved in the initial steps of productive HIV-1 infection have been well characterized, little is known about interactions between cellular carbohydrate receptors and HIV-1. Here, we report the involvement of a carbohydrate receptor, the macrophage mannose receptor (MR), and its role in supporting HIV-1 binding and entry. HIV-1 can enter the cytoplasm of human macrophages and microglia as well as murine macrophages by MR, although no subsequent viral replication was observed. Correspondingly, HIV-1 entry into Cos-7 cells after induction of expression of MR by transfection with MR-cDNA did not demonstrate viral replication. Our studies suggest that whereas MR may serve as a binding and an entry site, the MR-mediated pathway does not lead to productive HIV-1 infection. In addition, we report that recombinant HIV-1 gp120 blocks MR-mediated phagocytosis in human and murine alveolar macrophages and microglial cells. Therefore, characterization of the HIV-1 noninfectious MR-mediated phagocytic pathway may foster advances in HIV-1 vaccine design and an improved understanding of HIV-1/AIDS pathogenesis and host defenses.