The ligands for programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), an immunoinhibitory receptor belonging to CD28/cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 family, are PD-1 ligand 1 and 2 (PD-Ls). Recent reports suggest that the aberrant expression of PD-Ls on tumor cells impairs antitumor immunity, resulting in the immune evasion of the tumor cells. Although an inverse correlation between the expression level of PD-Ls and patients' prognosis has been reported for several malignant tumors, the follow-up period was limited because of the lack of the antibody (Ab) applicable to paraffin-embedded specimens. Here we generated a new Ab against PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and analyzed the expression level of PD-Ls in human ovarian cancer using paraffin-embedded specimens. Patients with higher expression of PD-L1 had a significantly poorer prognosis than patients with lower expression. Although patients with higher expression of PD-1 ligand 2 also had a poorer prognosis, the difference was not statistically significant. A significant inverse correlation was observed between PD-L1 expression and the intraepithelial CD8(+) T lymphocyte count, suggesting that PD-L1 on tumor cells directly suppresses antitumor CD8(+) T cells. Multivariate analysis showed the expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells and intraepithelial CD8(+) T lymphocyte count are independent prognostic factors. The PD-1/PD-L pathway can be a good target for restoring antitumor immunity in ovarian cancer.