Objective: To examine the association between key susceptibility factors and measures of chronic kidney disease in Asian American and Native Hawaiian participants enrolled in the Hawai'i site of the national Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP-2) study community screening program.
Design: In 2001-2003, 793 participants from five ethnic groups (Japanese, Native Hawaii an, Chinese, Filipino and Caucasian) were enrolled in the Hawai'i KEEP-2 program. Odds ratios were used as the measure of association and were computed using unconditional logistic regression. Renal susceptibility factors for chronic kidney disease were included in a multivariable model if found to be statistically significant in univariate analysis. The proportion of Hawai'i KEEP-2 study participants manifesting various clinical characteristics were compared by ethnicity with Japanese as the referent group.
Results: Significant ethnic differences in the occurrence of chronic kidney disease were found, with Japanese having the lowest occurrence of chronic kidney disease (18%) and Native Hawaiians the highest (40%). Within each ethnic group, the occurrence of chronic kidney disease was associated with a different ethnic-specific clustering of susceptibility factors. Hypertension was associated with chronic kidney disease among four of the five ethnic groups: Japanese, Caucasian, Native Hawaiian and Filipino. Overweight was associated with a decreased occurrence of chronic kidney disease among Caucasians, while diabetes and lower educational attainment were associated with increased occurrence of chronic kidney disease among Native Hawaiians. For Filipinos, diabetes and age 65 years and older were both associated with an increased occurrence for chronic kidney disease while lower educational attainment was associated with a reduced occurrence of chronic kidney disease. Among Chinese, no factors were significantly associated with chronic kidney disease, although trends for all factors paralleled those of the overall study group.
Conclusions: The occurrence of chronic kidney disease in the Hawai'i KEEP-2 study was nearly fourfold greater compared with the general US population. The clustering of susceptibility factors for chronic kidney disease occurrence was found to differ for all five ethnic groups.