Health literacy was assessed in pediatric asthma caregivers attending a university-based clinic. The medical provider's perception of caregiver health literacy was also examined. Eighty-six percent of the caregivers had adequate health literacy, 4% and 10% had marginal and inadequate health literacy, respectively. Health literacy was significantly higher for caregivers who were younger (p = 0.039) and had a higher level of education (p = 0.037). An agreement analysis revealed moderate agreement between provider perception of caregiver's health literacy and measured health literacy (Kappa = 0.51). The results suggest that medical providers may not accurately assess caregivers' actual health literacy level.