Objective: To determine if prize-based abstinence incentives will differentially affect substance abuse outcomes in patients with different treatment histories.
Design: Treatment seeking outpatients with more or less prior treatment episodes were randomized to receive either prize-based incentives plus treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU alone. Outcome variables included longest sustained period of abstinence, number of negative urine drug screens (UDS), and retention in treatment.
Results: Treatment experienced participants were older, more likely to be female, African American, unemployed, and with more severe cocaine and psychiatric problems. The effectiveness of incentives did not differ significantly between the two treatment history groups with regard to the outcome measures.