For a long time, the cerebellum has been known to be a structure related to posture and equilibrium control. According to the anatomic structure of inputs and internal structure of the cerebellum, its role in learning was theoretically reasoned and experimentally proved. The hypothesis of an inverse internal model based on feedback-error learning mechanism combines feedforward control by the cerebellum and feedback control by the cerebral motor cortex. The cerebellar cortex is suggested to acquire internal models of the body and objects in the external world. During learning of a new tool the motor cortex receives feedback from the realized movement while the cerebellum produces only feedforward command. To realize a desired movement without feedback of the realized movement, the cerebellum needs to form an inverse model of the hand/arm system. This suggestion was supported by FMRi data. The role of cerebellum in learning new postural tasks mainly concerns reorganization of natural synergies. A learned postural pattern in dogs has been shown to be disturbed after lesions of the cerebral motor cortex or cerebellar nuclei. In humans, learning voluntary control of center of pressure position is greatly disturbed after cerebellar lesions. However, motor cortex and basal ganglia are also involved in the feedback learning postural tasks.