"Transient receptor potential" cation channels (TRP channels) play a unique role as cell sensors, are involved in a plethora of Ca(2+)-mediated cell functions, and play a role as "gate-keepers" in many homeostatic processes such as Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) reabsorption. The variety of functions to which TRP channels contribute and the polymodal character of their activation predict that failures in correct channel gating or permeation will likely contribute to complex pathophysiological mechanisms. Dysfunctions of TRPs cause human diseases but are also involved in a complex manner to contribute and determine the progress of several diseases. Contributions to this special issue discuss channelopathias for which mutations in TRP channels that induce "loss-" or "gain-of-function" of the channel and can be considered "disease-causing" have been identified. The role of TRPs will be further elucidated in complex diseases of the intestinal, renal, urogenital, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Finally, the role of TRPs will be discussed in neuronal diseases and neurodegenerative disorders.