The Mx protein, which confers resistance to orthomyxovirus, has been detected in several organisms, and one nonsynonymous substitution (S631N) of the chicken Mx protein has been shown to affect resistant activities to the avian influenza virus in vitro. In the current study, the genomic sequence and polymorphism of the chicken Mx gene are reported. The full length of the chicken Mx gene spans about 21 kb, with 13 exons on chromosome 1 of the chicken genome. A total of 237 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found in the chicken Mx gene by comparison among 4 directly sequenced Mx genomic DNA sequences, and the reference sequence was inferred from the chicken genome project. The genomic diversity of the chicken Mx gene showed large variation in different regions, with the highest diversity in the 5' untranslated region and the lowest in the 3' untranslated region. The genomic structure and variation of sequences gathered here will allow an extensive analysis of the gene function with the aim of improving the antiviral resistance activities of chickens.