Since 1995, at the Istituto Nazionale Neurologico "Carlo Besta" in Milan (INNCB,) 401 deep brain electrodes were implanted to treat several drug-resistant neurological syndromes (Fig. 1). More than 200 patients are still available for follow-up and therapeutical considerations. In this paper our experience is reviewed and pioneered fields are highlighted. The reported series of patients extends the use of deep brain stimulation beyond the field of Parkinson's disease to new fields such as cluster headache, disruptive behaviour, SUNCt, epilepsy and tardive dystonia. The low complication rate, the reversibility of the procedure and the available image guided surgery tools will further increase the therapeutic applications of DBS. New therapeutical applications are expected for this functional scalpel.