Bcl10 plays an essential role in the adaptive immune response, because Bcl10-deficient lymphocytes show impaired Ag receptor-induced NF-kappaB activation and cytokine production. Bcl10 is a phosphoprotein, but the physiological relevance of this posttranslational modification remains poorly defined. In this study, we report that Bcl10 is rapidly phosphorylated upon activation of human T cells by PMA/ionomycin- or anti-CD3 treatment, and identify Ser(138) as a key residue necessary for Bcl10 phosphorylation. We also show that a phosphorylation-deficient Ser(138)/Ala mutant specifically inhibits TCR-induced actin polymerization yet does not affect NF-kappaB activation. Moreover, silencing of Bcl10, but not of caspase recruitment domain-containing MAGUK protein-1 (Carma1) induces a clear defect in TCR-induced F-actin formation, cell spreading, and conjugate formation. Remarkably, Bcl10 silencing also impairs FcgammaR-induced actin polymerization and phagocytosis in human monocytes. These results point to a key role of Bcl10 in F-actin-dependent immune responses of T cells and monocytes/macrophages.