To study effects of concurrent explosive strength and endurance training on aerobic and anaerobic performance and neuromuscular characteristics, 13 experimental (E) and 12 control (C) young (16 - 18 years) distance runners trained for eight weeks with the same total training volume but 19% of the endurance training in E was replaced by explosive training. Maximal speed of maximal anaerobic running test and 30-m speed improved in E by 3.0 +/- 2.0% (p < 0.01) and by 1.1 +/- 1.3% (p < 0.05), respectively. Maximal speed of aerobic running test, maximal oxygen uptake and running economy remained unchanged in both groups. Concentric and isometric leg extension forces increased in E but not in C. E also improved (p < 0.05) force-time characteristics accompanied by increased (p < 0.05) rapid neural activation of the muscles. The thickness of quadriceps femoris increased in E by 3.9 +/- 4.7% (p < 0.01) and in C by 1.9 +/- 2.0% (p < 0.05). The concurrent explosive strength and endurance training improved anaerobic and selective neuromuscular performance characteristics in young distance runners without decreases in aerobic capacity, although almost 20% of the total training volume was replaced by explosive strength training for eight weeks. The neuromuscular improvements could be explained primarily by neural adaptations.