Overexpression of protease-activated receptors-1,-2, and-4 (PAR-1, -2, and -4) in prostate cancer

Prostate. 2007 May 15;67(7):743-56. doi: 10.1002/pros.20503.


Background: Although protease-activated receptors (PARs) have been described to play a role in different malignancies, their expression and biological activity in prostate cancer are mostly unknown.

Methods: PAR expression in radical prostatectomy specimens was investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC, 40 patients) and RT-PCR. Their role in LNCaP prostate cancer cell migration and Rac1/Cdc42 signaling was assessed with Boyden chamber analysis and Western blot, respectively.

Results: PAR mRNA expression was higher in cancer, and protein expression was increased in PAR-1 (45%), PAR-2 (42%), and PAR-4 (68%), compared to normal glands. Increased PAR-1 (periglandular stroma) was associated with higher rates of biochemical recurrence (median follow-up, 5 years; P = 0.006). LNCaP migration was enhanced twofold and Rac1/Cdc42 signaling was activated by stimulation of PAR-1 and PAR-2.

Conclusions: PARs are overexpressed in prostate cancer and may serve as potential predictors of recurrence. The data suggest potential role of PARs in autocrine and paracrine mechanisms of prostate cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cell Movement / physiology
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Receptor, PAR-1 / genetics
  • Receptor, PAR-1 / metabolism*
  • Receptor, PAR-2 / genetics
  • Receptor, PAR-2 / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Thrombin / genetics
  • Receptors, Thrombin / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein / physiology
  • rac1 GTP-Binding Protein / physiology


  • RAC1 protein, human
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Receptor, PAR-1
  • Receptor, PAR-2
  • Receptors, Thrombin
  • cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein
  • rac1 GTP-Binding Protein
  • protease-activated receptor 4