The combination of autoimmune adrenal insufficiency with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type 1 autoimmune diabetes mellitus defines autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type II. The conditions may occur in any order, and diagnosis is confounded by the nonspecific nature of the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency and hypothyroidism. The disorder is not common, but consequences can be life threatening when the diagnosis is overlooked. The conditions usually present in midlife, and women are affected more often than men. The cosyntropin test is recommended for diagnosing adrenal insufficiency, which must be present to diagnose this syndrome. Hormone therapy for each condition is similar to treatment that would be provided if the conditions occurred separately, except that treatment for adrenal insufficiency must be given before thyroid therapy is started when the conditions occur together.