Predictors of freezing in Parkinson's disease: a survey of 6,620 patients

Mov Disord. 2007 May 15;22(7):953-6. doi: 10.1002/mds.21458.


Data from a survey of 6,620 Parkinson's disease patients were examined for correlation of freezing with age, sex, duration, subjective severity of Parkinson's disease, and antiparkinsonian medication. Forty-seven percent of the patients reported experiencing freezing regularly. Logistic regression analysis showed that freezing was significantly associated with a longer disease duration and a more advanced stage of the disease. Freezing episodes were more likely in men than in women and in patients taking, in addition to levodopa, Entacapone, Amantadine, or dopamine agonists. Finally, patients considering tremor as their main symptom reported freezing less frequently. Common antiparkinsonian drugs given in combination with levodopa were not negatively correlated with freezing. The results underline the necessity to develop appropriate countermeasures against this phenomenon, which is widely known to cause significant impairment of patients' quality of life and - as our data also showed - may cause traffic accidents in licensed patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antiparkinson Agents / therapeutic use
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Female
  • Forecasting
  • Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic / drug effects
  • Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic / physiology*
  • Health Surveys*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Parkinson Disease / diet therapy
  • Parkinson Disease / epidemiology*
  • Parkinson Disease / physiopathology*
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sex Factors


  • Antiparkinson Agents