This paper reviews some of the results and the speculations presented at the Torino CD38 Meeting in June, 2006 and focused on CD38 and CD157 seen as a family of molecules acting as surface receptors of immune cells. This partisan view was adopted in the attempt to combine the enzymatic functions with what the immunologists consider key functions in different cell models. At the moment, it is unclear whether the two functions are correlated, indifferent, or independent. Here we present conclusions inferred exclusively on human cell models, namely T and B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. As an extra analytical tool, we try to follow in the history of life when the enzymatic and receptorial functions were generated, mixing ontogeny, membrane localization, and cell anchorage.