The purpose of this study was to quantify and identify the airborne microbial contamination in Umbria Sawmills. In this paper we reported the preliminary results of our analysis. Microbial contaminants (fungi and bacteria) were assessed with passive (IMA Standard) and active (SAS microbial sampler) methods. There were significant differences of bacterial and/or fungal CFU/m3 values between the outdoor and indoor environments during the normal sawmills activity. Staphylococcus, Sphingomonas, Pasteurella, were the most predominant bacteria. The most predominant isolated fungi belong to Cladosporium, Penicillium, Alternaria and Aspergillus genus.