Regeneration of periodontal structures lost during periodontal diseases constitutes a complex biological process regulated among others by interactions between cells and growth factors. Growth factors are biologically active polypeptides affecting the proliferation, chemotaxis and differentiation of cells from epithelium, bone and connective tissue. They express their action by binding to specific cell-surface receptors present on various target cells including osteoblasts, cementoblasts and periodontal ligament fibroblasts. The observation that growth factors participate in all cell functions led to exogenous application during periodontal tissue repair aiming to their use as an alternative therapeutic approach to periodontal therapy. Cell types and cultures conditions, dose, carrier materials, application requirements are of critical importance in the outcome of periodontal repair. The purpose of this article is to review the literature with respect to the biological actions of PDGF, TGF, FGF, IGF and EGF on periodontal cells and tissues, which are involved in periodontal regeneration.