Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) of neuropeptides in crustacean neuronal tissues was performed on a MALDI-TOF/TOF instrument. Sample preparation protocols were developed for the sensitive detection of these highly complex endogenous signaling molecules. The neuromodulatory complements of the pericardial organ (PO) and brain of the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis, were mapped. Distributions of peptide isoforms belonging to 10 neuropeptide families were investigated using the IMS technique. Often, neuropeptides of high sequence homology were similarly located. However, two RFamide-family peptides and a truncated orcokinin peptide were mapped to locations distinct from other members of their respective families. Over 30 previously sequenced neuropeptides were identified based on mass measurement. For increased confidence of identification, select peptides were fragmented by post-source decay (PSD) and collisional-induced dissociation (CID). Collectively, this organ-level IMS study elucidates the spatial relationships between multiple neuropeptide isoforms of the same family as well as the relative distributions of neuropeptide families.