Joint destruction and tissue responses determine the outcome of chronic arthritis. Joint inflammation and damage are often the dominant clinical presentation. However, in some arthritic diseases, in particular the spondyloarthritides, joint remodeling is a prominent feature, with new cartilage and bone formation leading to ankylosis and contributing to loss of function. A role for bone morphogenetic proteins in joint remodeling has been demonstrated in the formation of both enthesophytes and osteophytes. Data from genetic models support a role for bone morphogenetic protein signaling in cartilage homeostasis. Finally, this signaling pathway is likely to play a steering role in the synovium.