The aim was to investigate the effects of a 48 h period of fluid, energy or combined fluid and energy restriction on salivary IgA (s-IgA) responses at rest and after exercise. Thirteen healthy males (age 21 (sem 1) years) participated in four randomised 48 h trials. In the control trial participants received their estimated energy (12,154 (sem 230) kJ/d) and water (3912 (sem 140) ml/d) requirements. On fluid restriction (FR) participants received their energy requirements and 193 (sem 19) ml water/d to drink and on energy restriction (ER) participants received their water requirements and 1214 (sem 25) kJ/d. Fluid and energy restriction (F+ER) was a combination of FR and ER. After 48 h, participants performed a 30 min treadmill time trial (TT) followed by rehydration (0-2 h) and refeeding (2-6 h). Unstimulated saliva was collected at 0, 24 and 48 h, post-TT, and 2 and 6 h post-TT. Saliva flow rate (sflw) and s-IgA (ELISA) remained unchanged in control conditions and on ER. However, 48 h on FR decreased sflw (64 %) which most probably accounted for the increase in s-IgA concentration (P < 0.01). Despite a decrease in sflw (54 %), s-IgA concentration did not increase on F+ER, resulting in a decreased s-IgA secretion rate by 24 h (0 h: 20 (sem 2); 24 h: 12 (sem 2) microg/min; P < 0.01). Post-TT s-IgA secretion rate was not lower compared with 48 h on any trial. s-IgA secretion rate returned to within 0 h values by 6 h post-TT on F+ER. In conclusion, a 24-48 h period of combined F+ER decreased s-IgA secretion rate but normalisation occurred upon refeeding.