The proximity of immune cell aggregations to the vasculature is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that inflammation is able to modulate the microcirculation. Until recently, the detection of cerebral blood perfusion changes was technically challenging, and perfusion studies in multiple sclerosis patients yielded contradictory results. However, new developments in fast magnetic resonance imaging have enabled us to image the cerebral hemodynamics based on the dynamic tracking of a bolus of paramagnetic contrast agents (dynamic susceptibility contrast). This review discusses the technical principles, possible pitfalls, and potential for absolute quantification of cerebral blood volume and flow in a clinical setting. It also outlines recent findings on inflammation associated perfusion changes, which are inseparable from pathological considerations in multiple sclerosis.