Objectives: This study assessed the type, time course, and risk factors for right and left ventricular outflow tract reinterventions after the Ross procedure in a population of infants, children, and young adults.
Methods: Patients who underwent the Ross procedure between January 1995 and June 2004 were included (n = 121 consecutive patients). Kaplan-Meier and hazard analyses of right and left ventricular outflow tract reinterventions were performed, and predictors of reintervention were identified through multivariate analysis.
Results: The median age at the Ross procedure was 8.2 years (4 days to 34 years); 20% were aged less than 1 year. Half of the patients had isolated aortic valve disease; the other half had complex left-sided heart disease. Early mortality (<30 days) was 2.5% (n = 3). There were 2 late deaths (1.7%). Follow-up (median 6.5 years [2.5 months to 10.4 years]) was available for 96% of survivors (n = 111). Right ventricular outflow tract reintervention (n = 22 in 15 patients) was performed 2.0 years (2.0 weeks to 9.8 years) after the Ross procedure because of stenosis in 19 of 22 cases. Freedom from right ventricular outflow tract reintervention at 8 years was 81%. Smaller homograft size was the strongest predictor (P < .001) of right ventricular outflow tract reintervention. Left ventricular outflow tract reintervention (n = 15 in 15 patients) was performed 2.8 years (1.0 months to 11.6 years) after the Ross procedure because of severe neoaortic insufficiency in 10 of 15 patients. Freedom from left ventricular outflow tract reintervention at 8 years was 83%. Native pulmonary valve abnormalities (P < .01), original diagnosis of aortic insufficiency (P < .01), prior aortic valve replacement (P = .01), and prior ventricular septal defect repair (P = .04) predicted left ventricular outflow tract reintervention.
Conclusions: At midterm follow-up after the Ross procedure, interim mortality is rare. Neoaortic insufficiency and right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit obstruction are common postoperative sequelae, requiring reintervention in one quarter of patients.