In placebo-controlled clinical trials low dose estrogens have been shown to reduce hot flashes an average of 65%. Low dosage is effective in preventing bone loss in early menopause and both low and ultralow estrogen dosages can prevent bone loss among women many years beyond menopause. Epidemiological studies indicate less risk of cardiovascular disease and venous thromboembolism in women who use low dose estrogens compared to standard dose. Low dosages of estrogens are less likely to produce unacceptable side effects, such as vaginal bleeding or breast tenderness. When prescribing low dosage estrogen, one can safely use less progestogen, either less daily dosage or less frequent cycles. Older women on ultralow estrogen may not require regular progestogen because the endometrium is not stimulated. In conclusion, there is a strong rationale for use of lower estrogen dosage in HT. Low dosage estrogen can relieve vasomotor symptoms and can prevent postmenopausal bone loss. Women taking low dosages of estrogens are less likely to have unacceptable side effects, such as vaginal bleeding or breast tenderness. Moreover, the potential harm caused by standard dosages of estrogen with progestin, including coronary heart disease, venous thromboembolism, stroke, and breast cancer may be mitigated by use of lower estrogen doses that do not require daily or monthly progestin opposition.