Humans and mice separated more than 60 million years ago. Since then, evolution has led to a multitude of changes in their genomic sequences. The divergence of genes has resulted in differences both in the innate and adaptive immune systems. In this chapter, we focus on species difference with regard to immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR). We have compared the immunoglobulin constant region gene loci from human and mouse, with an emphasis on the switch regions, germ line transcription promoters, and 3' enhancers. We have also compared pathways/factors that are involved in CSR. Although there are remarkable similarities in the cellular machinery involved in CSR, there are also a number of unique features in each species.