Extraordinary host switching in siphonostomatoid copepods and the demise of the Monstrilloida: integrating molecular data, ontogeny and antennulary morphology

Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007 May;43(2):368-78. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2007.02.004. Epub 2007 Feb 16.


Copepods exhibit an astounding variety of lifestyles, host associations and morphology, to the extent that their crustacean affinities may be obscured. Relationships among the ten copepod orders based on morphological characters remain equivocal. Here we test the ordinal status of the enigmatic Monstrilloida using SSU rDNA gene sequences, comparative morphological data (antennulary sensory interface) and ontogenetic data (caudal ramus setation patterns). Bayesian analysis unexpectedly revealed the Monstrilloida are nested within a fish-parasitic clade of the Siphonostomatoida and share a common ancestor with the stem species of the caligiform families (sea-lice). This unforeseen relationship is congruent with both antennulary and caudal ramus morphology. The divergence of the monstrilloids from an ectoparasitic, vertebrate-associated ancestor involved radical changes in host utilization, body plan and life cycle strategy, a combination rarely observed and probably unique in metazoan parasites. Adult monstrilloids secondarily returned to a free-living, predator-exposed mode of life and we postulate the pressure on maintaining a functional approaching-predator detection system has progenetically delayed the suppression (as in post-copepodid caligiform instars) of the 5-point antennulary sensory array. The homoplastic evolution of the frontal filament in Siphonostomatoida is discussed.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Evolution
  • Copepoda / anatomy & histology*
  • Copepoda / classification
  • Copepoda / genetics*
  • DNA, Ribosomal / genetics
  • Female
  • Fishes / parasitology*
  • Genome
  • Host-Parasite Interactions
  • Male


  • DNA, Ribosomal